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Showing posts from April 22, 2008

Cell Injury

Reversible Injury: 1. Decreased synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.   2. Decrease function of Na-K ATPase pump- Influx of sodium and efflux of potassium Swelling of cell and endoplasmic reticulum. 3. Glycolysis- Depletion of cytoplasmic glycogen, Increased lactic acid production Decreased PH of the cell 4. Decreased protein synthesis and detachment of ribosomes from rough endoplasmic reticulum. 5. Plasma membrane blebs and myelin figures Irreversible Injury: 1. Severe membrane damage- Massive influx of calcium into the cell- Large flocculant densities in the matrix. Efflux of intra cellular enzymes into circulation. 2. Mitochondrial dysfunction- Mitochondrial swelling Large densities in mitochondrial matrix Irreparable damage of oxidative phosphorylation Inability to produce ATP 3. Rupture of lysosomes- Release of lysosomal digestive enzymes into cytosol Activation of acid hydrolases followed by autolysis 4. Nuclear changes- Pyknosis- degeneration and condensation of nucle